Natures seasonal bounty comes in consistent giant waves, and with many mushrooms, intense intermittent spurts throughout the year. You will, as I have many times in the past, have to figure out what you are going to do with all of your free food. Especially if you have been touched with mushroom fever. One of the easiest and time honored ways of preserving food, especially mushrooms, is drying and dehydrating them.
I have spoken on the individuality of each wild mushroom’s flavor and cooking methods a few different times. Their individual drying preferences and needs are varied as well. Morels, as they are hollow, take well to drying, but not near as quickly as a petite yellowfeet chanterelle, or a black trumpet would. Boletes, and slippery jacks in particular if they are to be dried must be attended to very quickly, almost immediately; to preserve them for future use.
I have tried to dry and preserve almost every mushroom I have come across, and have been the point man for drying and preserving large quantities of wild mushrooms for a professional restaurant for some time. Drying mushrooms at home isn’t as serious as it is in a professional restaurant, where many many pounds, (this week there was 100lbs of morels that came in) are dealt with, but a few little tips and tricks can save you from possible heartbreak in the event you were out on a very hot or wet day when picking. Here are some tips I find helpful to remember:
My Tips on Drying Wild Mushrooms
- Dessication means dehydrating without heat. Heat is the enemy of flavor in dried foods and will harm the perfume of mushrooms irreparably if used in excess. Mushrooms dried without heat will have the strongest perfume and aroma possible.
- If you use a dehydrator to preserve your mushrooms, take a close look at the heat settings. When you turn the dehydrator on does the air feel warm? Each dehydrator is different (I have an old hand-me-down I love, it’s a Harvest Maid brand) and if the air at all feels warm on the lowest temp setting, open the door of the dehydrator during the preservation process.
- With delicate mushrooms like slippery jacks, or mushrooms picked in the later stage of their life cycle, the heat created by dehydrators can actually speed up the decomposition process, especially if they do not have proper breathing room.
- If your mushrooms are wet from rain or warm from being in a vehicle, before even thinking about processing, cooking, or cleaning them, lay them out comfortably on a cookie sheet and refrigerate them immediately, covered in a slightly moist towel or rag. They need to aerate, cool quickly, and breathe to retain their shelf life. Once they’re cooled, you will have the best success drying them. This should only take half an hour or so in the fridge.
- Slice your mushrooms you intend to dry very thinly, this will help them dry faster and also help them to have a better mouth-feel and texture when re-hydrated
- When placing mushrooms in a dehydrator, make sure they do not touch each other too much, remember they retain heat, and air circulation is key, especially with boletes.
- Drying is a great way to salvage insect damaged mushrooms, or those that may be slightly imperfect if eaten fresh. After they’re dehydrated, they can be ground into a flavorful powder that will create stocks, rich compound butters, rubs and other things that are resourceful, not to mention delicious.
- Mushrooms are done dehydrating when they are *cracker* dry, they should almost be brittle, if there are any in your dried collection that still have soft spots, leave the top of whatever container you are going to store them open, that way they will continue to aerate. After a week or two put the lid back on, and should have no problems.
Drying Wild Mushrooms Without a De-Hydrator
You don’t have to have a dehydrator, but they’re nice to have. People have been drying food for eons this way, here are some tips.
- Slice the mushrooms as thin as possible
- Sliced mushrooms can be threaded with a needle and string, then you can hang them up and let them air dry outside, this is one of the oldest techniques.
- Blow a fan on the mushrooms constantly, it may take days for them to be completely dry.
- Laying sliced mushrooms on screens outside or in a dry place will work.
- If the mushrooms feel even the slightest bit moist, leave them out for a while longer.
Are My Morels Rotten?
Absolutely, positively, this is one of the biggest problems I notice when I’ve been in the homes of other mushroom hunters, and is a question I get asked about regularly during the season. I’ve seen people excitedly show me gallon jars filled to bursting with tiny, black, shriveled morels (see the picture below) that they think have been dehydrated, when actually they killed the mushrooms by allowing them to putrify and begin decomposing, while they were de-hydrating, then they just forgot about them for a while longer until the mushrooms that died, become dried.
If your morels are dark, if they are soft and wet, if they smell different or foul, if they have been in your fridge for more than a week, you need to inspect them. Here is a picture that shows 3 stages of morels and their successful and unsuccessful preservation through drying.